Women Entrepreneurship and Resisting Factors in India

V. H. Pithadia

Entrepreneurship, when look as a specific vehicle, though however indirect, for the accomplishment of larger objectives (larger than life), it unfolds its scope beyond the boundaries of tangible aspects for profit making (socially desirable under both the sub­systems of ethical standards i.e. the 'utilitarianism' and 'universalism'). What these 'large than life' objects are, one is usually baffled with. It is obviously a deep rooted and rather unconsciously and consciously realized sense of immense and several social responsibilities.

Women (as also girl child) development is an acquired theme -acquired from the context of "thus realized exploitation of the women (girl child) from social, economic, political angles". It is obviously a later development which does find missing links in culture and mythology in so far as Indian women (girl child) are concerned. The role of women in the overall development of the society, the economy ad above all in the development of mankind has been unbeatable -the 'VEDAS' even clearly manifest it. Of course, the topsy-turvy of Indian history has had its vivid impact on the life & life­style of Indian women leading to a confused status as far as the normative role of women in the society was concerned. The returning back has never been so easy.

The efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and so of Ishwar Chand Vidya Sagar, M. G. Ranade worked as catalyst in the upbringing of the status of women in Indian society in terms of social equality. This was before independence. Independence had a promising dawn. It took threads from the developmental efforts (establishment of Women's India Association -1917; The National Council Of Women -1925 All India Women's Educational Conference -1927; And, The First All India Women's Educational Conference -1928) in the past and consequently, therefore, our Indian constitution had a special provision under Article 15(3) empowering the states to have "special provisions for women and children". Finally we also had the National Education Policy (1986) that clearly emphasized that the role of any such educational policies has always been that of "....a positive  interventionist" It is no doubt a welfarist approach in a country like India that is a 'welfare state. More importantly when we proclaim our faith in the "Socialistic pattern of the society" (Second five year Plan) it becomes almost inevitable to neglect or ignore any section of the society.
Women have to come forward and have to remain not only socially independent but also economically independent. Jobs in somebody's business (could be government organizations as well) do ensure to some extent economic independent but them at the same time such jobs do not relieve the women from the social fetters which are t heir in terms of a 'cap' on their independent thinking; being assertive in decision making; and acting or reacting quite independently therefore. Women have then to learn the skills of risk (economic/social) bearing; risk minimizing; and rationalizing risk thought their entry in the business of different kinds. Maybe here adherence to the pure theory of 'opportunity cost' is not possible yet it can be a meaningful experiment with 'truth' resulting in the candid yardsticks of measuring the individual and independent capabilities and potentials of women.

As it has been mentioned that it is the responsibilities of the respective states to specify provisions for women (and children), it shall be in the fitness of all the things to design specialized strategies towards making women socially and economically independent. Educations institutions (higher learning institutions as well) have to definitely bear the responsibility. Intuitive decisions have also fetched commendable heights to many entrepreneurs in the past and may repeat the similar pattern in future as well, but an educated entrepreneur (preferably with higher education) is more likely to be "approximately correct (only) rather than being precisely wrong". Hence special courses at the centers of higher learning are all the more welcome for all time(s) to come. This will require integrating the objectives of National Industrial Policy and the National Policy on Education. There are agencies (both government/non-government and voluntary organizations) that are already engaged in their benign act of organizing the "Entrepreneurship Development programs". Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO); National Small Industries Development Organization(NSIC); District Industries Centers (DICs); Commercial Banks; Development Banks; Engineering Colleges; Institute for Entrepreneurship Development (EDI) are some to mention a few. Such organization have a routine package developed by certain specialized agencies viz. National Institute for Entrepreneurship and small business Development) NIESBUD dc. But both the duration for which these courses are imparted and the beneficiaries (only a few women unless organizes specifically for women) of such courses are the ones who invariably (by and large) face the trauma of apathy when it comes to following-up with the " (budget backed & time bound) Entrepreneurship Development Programs (EDPs)".

Then the centers of higher learning can always come forward for imparting such specialized training courses to those women who require such courses. It goes without saying that such training courses can not be charitably extended for all women but then if only a few capable women are benefited from such programs they always can take the lead and in their turn can help other women in fulfilling their needs (bio-genie & socio­genic).

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT A unique blend of the Product-life-Cycle and the Corporate- Life-Cycle theories/ideas. Stabilization and growth are, therefore, a function of the product and the corporate life cycle.
EXTERNALIZATION OF PRODUCT AND BUSINESS FIRM GO TOGETHER Stability of the product and the growth thereof enables the firm to shift the firm from a single product-line stream that protects and develops not only the initial product but also enriches its development (consumers, market and sale) along with the product-line-increases complimentarily among the products of the similar product-line.
STABILIZATION Following could prove to be meaningful indicators of the stabilization objectives:
                      (i) COST & TIME OVERRUNS,
         (vi)          DEVELOPING SYSTEMS.
According to HAAN ("Fast Growth") important characteristics for an ideal business growth the following could be the reliable yardsticks: (i) Near monopoly, (ii)      Rate or growth of profits (iii) Cyclical fluctuations (iv) Inquiries and repeated orders (v)       Talent (vii)     Quality-Cost link (ix) Time (viii)   Networking




>   Values an(y) action on the basis of net outcome benefits that are generally known
In advance to those who delineate the course of action.
>   Developed in close association with the evolution of the economic theories. >   Action is judged only indirectly i.e. it is devoid of any moral value and the
Rightness/wrongness of any action depends upon the benefits/harm it produces
Ultimately >   the overall improvement in welfare of the members of society is the benchmark
For justifying any action from the viewpoint of this ethical system >   the number of people favorably affected by any action is yet another criterion for
This ethical system, and there a strong presumption in favor .of equity
>   ultimately the 'END' and not the means are important.                                                                                                           
>   Focuses on the intentions that generate and motivate any action i.e. actions themselves in particular and end results in general are to be justified.
>   Means aught to be as pure as the end itself -generation of such universal rules as will help test and judge the moral worth of any action.
>   It is built on the basic premises of (I) RESPECT FOR INDIVIDUAL; and, (II) INDEPENDENT MORALITY -any action chosen once on the moral grounds can be followed by anyone under the similar circumstances i.e. it has no place for self-interest or special circumstances - NO DISCRETION.
>   Any moral action simultaneously adopts the above (I) & (II)

Pursuit of Individual Goals and Overall Performance of Economy
By the instrumentality of the profit & loss system, the most eminent members of the society are prompted to serve to the best of their abilities the well being of the masses of the less gifted people. What pays under capitalism is sacrificing the common man -the customer, the more of people you satisfy the better it is for you. (MISES 1962)

However this process of securing doesn't give much thought to the values that are formed and adhered to by the individuals, and the question of improving the overall and net well being of the members of the society can be tested under the Pareto's optimality conditions.
Self Interest Of Individuals - Disposing Off Their Incomes For Gods And Services.
Self Interest Of Business Firms - Pursuing Profits (Socially Defensible)
>   Promotional and institutional arrangements. >   Legal system for consumers and set procedures. >   An attempt towards reduced market distortions.

It may consist of two systems:
A. Family System - a positive and intuitive system-
B. Task System - a normative and structured system with features of symbolic management. A task system may be managed in anyone or more of the following ways
(i)        Direct control by the founder member -partnership/proprietorship concerns.
Members f family have share and enjoy the voting power, (ii)       Ornamental control by the founder member - joint decisions are preferred (iii)     Bounded professionalism - professionals are hired to work but their are drawn by the members of the family and, (iv)      Indirect control.

(i)        Hierarchical with centralization at the top,
(ii)      Functionalists and managers acquire middle positions; and,
(iii)     No specific policies - quicker communications.

All our department bas been trying to do in regards to facilitate the entrepreneurship development is by way of encouraging industry institute interaction; summer/winter training projects in the specific areas; organization of workshops; assisting other institution in terms of upbringing their qualities (one such institution is Southern Gujarat Chamber of Commerce). In all such activities we do project would be entrepreneur who are currently our students. As a department we do take proper care that women representation of the students is never marred whether is class representative's election or going to some other university for participating in debates and other programs. As such, therefore, we are on our way to promote the status of our students in general and those of e girl-student in particular with a view to ensuring that they future entrepreneur.