Organizational Tension: The Cause & Cure

Dr. Vijay Pithadia


In reality the organizational tension poses a dilemma for keeping organizational environment healthy & blissful. Usually every human being is subservient to tension and tender by cosmic consciousness which evolvedcosmic intellect with their five keen elements i. e. sound, touch, taste, smell and form (eyes) along with gross forms viz. the sky, the air, the fire,the water & the earth. The connection of three Gunas of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas engulf the entire creation and motivate the human senses into operation. The result of correcting in the three mode of nature influence the thought power (chitta) and latent state on account of the interaction and reaction with the senses which gives birth to tension and conflicts. To bring out harmony in the three modes of nature, the Practice of Yoga provides a lasting solution, if under the unified managerial programs and practices.


The manager has to keep the organizational environment healthy and happy but in reality organizational tension poses a dilemma to the all management. Before going ahead, it is desirable to mention that term 'organization' is an inclusive one. According to Etzioni Amitai (1964) organization is the social unit or human grouping deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals. In other words, an organization may be defined as a human group deliberately and consciously created for the attainment of certain goals with rational co­ordination of closely relevant activities. Whereas tension refers to mental disequilibrium of the organizational set up.


The human being is subjected to tension. The overt and covert components of the human beings have a unique system of functioning. According to the Upnisadic theory of evolution from the cosmic consciousness evolved the cosmic intellect (composition of Gunas, viz. Sattva, rajas and Tamas). The cosmic intellect evolved in the five subtle elements, viz. the sky (sound), the air (touch), the fire (form), the water (taste) and earth (smell). The form of earth evolved the food and the food became the cause of physical life. The Darwin theory of evolution could not counteract it as the human being, even after undergoing so many natural mutations never gave up his/her involvement with the nature. Further, the Invisible mental man (Commonly referred to as Brain power of the gross body) has four components viz. Mind (Manna), Intellect (Buddhi), thought Power (Chitta) and Ego (Ahankar). These four elements are known as Inner senses. In a rising order, mind has three operations viz. Imagination, Desire and Feeling. Intellect has also three functions i. e. Rationality, Memory and Power of Decision Making. Thought Power (Chitta) is at the background of the ten senses, mind, intellect and ego. The action of the ten senses, mind intellect and ego creates a reaction in the thought process. The dynamism of this reaction is known as the tendencies in the human consciousness. Its permanent impact in called latent ingrained tendencies termed as Sanskars.

Formulation of Dilemma

The three Gunas i.e., Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are redefined matter of natural constituency. These three Gunas engulf the entire creation and motivate the human senses into action. All the activities (bodily or mental) are motivated by the Gunas or the natural tendencies in the human being. On the basis of the aforementioned framework, the same may be categorized broadly as follows:

     Preponderance of Rajas

Preponderance of Rajas facilitates to affluent living, market competition and social life of top executives, changing demands of workers, reward contribution, desire for grabbing union leadership, and high labor turn over, assumed illness among managers and trade union leaders etc. Henry Friedman & Sonder Merebiem (1980) mentioned about "Inequalities of status, power and reward" which have their root in ascendance of Rajas.

     Preponderance of Tamas

Preponderance of Tamas gives rise to tensions relating to expression of anger, decreasing tolerance, alcoholic addiction, exploitation of women workers, non-cooperation, demand forquota based promotions and reservation of posts, reformed administration, negative relationship between managerial tension and executive development and negative attitude towards employment of work ethics etc. Where as growth of Tamas also gives rise to inactivity, work accumulation, threat, carelessness, violence, destruction and stupidity.

     Preponderance of Sattva

Preponderance of Sattva makes a curb on erosion of traditional values and III happenings among conscious decisions. It enhances the sense of social responsibility of a manager, imposes self-discipline, makes the organizational members aware of duty, openness, enhances morale and fellow feeling etc. The "open window" approach is possible through preponderance of Sattva.


Most of the theories are based on the hypothesis that the normal human being has a feeling of pain on account of mental disequilibrium. Mc Far land (1958) mentioned that awareness of need creates tension in the minds of human beings. Whereas Hugo Munster Berg (1913) called it a lack of inner harmony Famous thinker Abraham Maslow (1962) finds human being unhappy on non-fulfillment of the needs by the hierarchy. Thus, the hypothesis of the motivation theories is that unhappiness among human being is the cause of tension and consequential conflicts, within the organizational set up.

The realityis otherwise, the cosmic consciousness has its origin in spirit (Atman). According to statement of Vadrayanacharya Brahma sutra "the attributes of spirit are supreme bliss, eternal peace and happiness". The Upanishads declare that a human being is a by-product of supreme bliss or eternal peace associated with happiness. So long as the three Gunas are in a balanced state, everything goes on smoothly in the organizational set up. But imbalance in the Gunas gives birth to tension. Hence to bring about a balance, a person needs to imbibe a greater amount of Sattva. Thus, the correct hypothesis is that human being seeks peace and happiness and its absence creates tension.


The summon bonum of human life is to avoid tension with a view to attaining peace and happiness. According to Robert Owen (1825) "the man is born with a desire to obtain happiness where desire is the primary cause of all his actions..." How can human being be happy until he is in a state of peace? The state of peace is attainable by absorbing more and more Sattva through the practice of Yoga. The term Yoga refers to the super consciousness state of Mind and practice of Yoga also roots out latent ingrained tendencies and gives birth to the feeling of happiness of all being. S.K. Chakra borty (1986) Professor of Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata, expressed that the practice of Yoga assist in developing many virtues like exercising control over anger, promoting fellow feeling, developmentof patience and fortitude, cooperation with coworkers etc. The first lessons of theory Z are also possible through adoption of the practice of Yoga.


The cosmic intellect is composed of three modes of nature viz. Rajas, Tamas and Sattva. Individual intellect remains in constant communion with the cosmic intellect. The changes in the three modes of nature affect the thought power (Chitta) and its latent state, on account of the interaction and reaction with the senses which gives rise to tension and conflicts. It retards the organizational health and fitness. The remedy of the malady lies in bringing about harmony in the three modes of nature. The practice of Yoga provides a lasting solution. If the management paves way for it, the result is bound to be astounding but the word of caution is essential. The CEO or MD should not make the practiceof Yoga compulsory in his or her business organization. Yoga is neither an item of merchandise nor a saleable service. It should be practiced in the beginning at least under the compassionate grace and guidance of the expert. The aim of organizational setup is to enhance the capacity to do more work under the time management principles and practices for providing the better means of production and it’s marketing under the norms a provided in the three Gunas.


1. Etzioni Amitai (1964) "Modern organizations”, New York, Prentice Hall Inc
2. Henry Friedman’s Sender Merebiem (1980) "The dynamics of industrial conflicts-lessons from ford, p. 349
3. McFarland (1958) "Management: Principles & practice", New York, Macmillan
4. Hugo Munster berg (1913) "Psychology & industrial efficiency", Boston, Houghton Muffin
5. Abraham H. Maslow (1962) "Towards psychology of being", Princeton, J.J. Von Host rand Reynolds
6.  S.K. Chakraborthy (1986) "will to yoga: Key to better quality of work life', Ahmedabad, Vikalpa, Volume 11, No.2, April-June
7.  William (1981) "Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge" New York, Addition Wesley